Atare = Agbon = Odidere…

 The Magic of Ataré..”Grains of Paradise = Alligator Pepper”

Guinea Pepper is so called because it is a native plant from the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa. Other common names for this spice are Guinea grains, melegueta pepper, and grains of paradise.  Alligator pepper is a West African spice which corresponds to the seeds and seed pods of Aframomum Danielli. It is a close relative of grains of paradise, obtained from the closely related species, Aframomum Melegueta. However, unlike grains of paradise which are generally sold as only the seeds of the plant, alligator pepper is sold as the entire pod containing the seeds.

The plants which provide alligator pepper are herbaceous perennials of the ginger (Zingiberaceae) family of flowering plants, native to swampy habitats along the West African coast. Once the pod is open and the seeds are revealed, the reason for this spice’s common English name becomes apparent as the seeds have a papery skin enclosing them and the bumps of the seeds within this skin is reminiscent of an alligator’s back. It is a common ingredient in West African cuisine, where it imparts both pungency and a spicy aroma to classic West African soups (stews). Often, a single whole pod is pounded in a pestle and mortar before half of it is added as a flavoring to West African soups. The spice can also be substituted in any recipe using grains of paradise or black cardamom to provide a hotter and more pungent flavor.

It can open the way to communicate with the Orisha and Ancestors, it is the key ingredient in countless Sacrifices and literally there is no major initiation that can proceed without having a bit of its Ashé. It can also be used for protection and even to set wrong doings.In the Orisha community Ataré is also known as Pimienta de Guinea. 

When babies are born in Yoruba culture, they are given a small taste of Alligator Pepper (Atare) shortly after birth as part of the routine baby-welcoming process, and it is also used as an ingredient at traditional meet-and-greets. Alligator Peppers and kola Nuts are presented to guests at the top of the agenda and prior to any other food or entertainment. Prayers and libations are made together with kola Nuts and Alligator Pepper.

Ataré is important because its energy awakes our bodies & spirit, it increases our Ashé, it makes our words carry the heat of creation and it opens doors to the realm of the Ancestors and Orisha. However, the value of Ataré goes beyond the spiritual reasons our bright Ancestors recognized centuries ago.

                         *** Agbon = The Coconut Oracle ***

 Coconut Palm Tree = “Tree of Life from heaven” 

There is no doubt that the ritual of breaking the Coconut has its origins in Hindu practice. There is no doubt that it is performed by people of all religions today in India. It is even performed in enterprises conducted by the state, which are supposed to be truly secular.

Smashing the coconut is symbolic of annihilating the Ego and Humbling oneself before God. Whenever a work of magnitude is undertaken it is natural for the persons involved to feel a sense of pride at what they are setting out to achieve or what they have achieved. This ritual indicates that the actual “doer” is God and humans are merely instruments in his hands. Coconuts are also broken before the deities in temples during normal worship. Again, the philosophy is the same – complete submission to God.

Coconut Palm Tree is called the ‘Tree of Life’, ‘The tree from heaven which gives all that you desire’ by those living in coastal areas. As a thanksgiving to God and a symbolic gesture, for the path to Self Realization which you tend to forget in the midst of the stress and strain of day to day living.

*** Coconut is a symbol of selfless service to the almighty. Each and every part of the coconut is of use to mankind. Nurturing a Coconut tree does not require much effort. It can grow all on its own and serves the mankind in many ways.

The Evolution of Obi Abata to Coconut: Divination is performed using four pieces of Coconut meat in Santería Lukumí.  When the Lukumí people were abducted to Cuba, they found themselves in a different climate where many of their native plants did not grow. Kola Nuts do not grow on the island of Cuba, and yet the Lukumí people needed to perform Obí Abata divination to begin restoring their religious practices. They decided to innovate and used Coconut meat instead of kola Nut (Obí Abata). By cracking open a Coconut and extracting its meat then dividing it into four pieces, they developed a suitable alternative for Obí Abata divination. Over the years, and with the loss of fluency in the Lukumí dialect, Santeria adherents fell into the habit of referring to Coconuts as Obí since they were being used in the Obí Abata system of divination. But in the strictest sense, the Lukumí word obí actually refers to Obi Abata, and Agbon is the proper word for Coconut.

*** Coconut water is an essential spiritual item which stand for mystery and parity. We are require to apply Coconut water to this great bath ritual rites to purify ourselves. What we are suffering from is unknown to us, our enemy is known to us, items they used for the evil spells are unknown to us: mystery. For our deliverance to reach 100% purity, Coconut water must be involved. Remember, literary, coconut is been used to reduce or dilute the effectiveness of drug. The amount of injury, harm, pains, and suffer our enemies leveled against must be fight using mystic force of Coconut water.

*** The Coconut is an independent object of worship… A coconut  The fruit of God, alone is also used to symbolize ‘God’ While worshiping any deity. The three eyes of the coconut represent the three eyes of unknowns. In India one of the most common offerings in a temple is a Coconut. It is also offered occasions like weddings, festivals, the use of a new vehicle, bridge, house etc. In traditional ritual done in all temples and many homes, several materials are poured over the deity like milk, curd, honey, tender coconut water, sandal paste, holy ash etc. Each material has a specific significance of bestowing certain benefits on worshipers. The Coconut also symbolizes selfless service. Every part of the tree -the trunk, leaves, fruit, coir etc, is used in innumerable ways like thatches, mats, tasty dishes, oil, soap etc.

Parrot =  Odidere = Ayekooto :  The World Reject Truth

The Magic in a Feather: A Feather Found***A Gift From SpiritThe Birds are sacred and special in various ways and thus make them to be different from other Birds. One of these Birds is a Bird named Parrot =  Odidere = Ayekooto which means = The World Reject Truth… because they believe the Bird is strictly a Bird that say nothing but the truth. This Bird is a special bird with many beautiful features and brilliant characteristics that makes it different from just any other Bird. Legend has it that during the Ancient times of myth, animals including Birds speaks and understand the human language. And it is believed till this day that Odidere = Ayekooto still retain this special mystical power to speak, hear, and understand the language of human.

Parrot spirit animal is the wise teacher of the power of your words, spoken or not spoken, for even the silent. Words in your mind are driving you forward, having dominion over your choices and the paths you take. Parrot reflects to us the immense power of our inner mind. Parrot spirit animal shares his wisdom; to take care in the words you speak and the secrets thoughts you carry.

In forest one can easily see other Birds like pigeon, sparrow, dove and even hawk. But to see this Bird named Parrot = Odidere you will have to go deep into the thick deep forest because it is not a common Bird, and even the nest of this sacred Bird is hardly seen by people. It is even the belief that the egg of Odidere is a sacred object that cannot be seen by a mortal, and thus make it so rare to be seen in open places. The feather of Odidere is used by royalty and it is a symbol of the elite. A symbolic special Bird that combines its beauty together with its mystical attributes… (Obatala Odidere-Crown Ogbe Ose)

Parrot is symbolic of truth telling = Speaking from the center of the heart. As Parrot speaks back to you the words you have spoken, you hear your own words with no filter. This is a powerful reflection of self, as you able to recognize the truth of your own words and what you are communicating or you will be reminded of the secrets that you are keeping, or the untruths that are being told. Parrot is a great teacher of communication and brings guidance and assistance in your ability to communicate that which you really feel.

Feathers come from Birds and so are thought to be magical by association. Birds have long been regarded as messengers to the Gods, as Ancient people believed they would carry messages to and from the heavens. Birds were the only animals who could defy gravity, and so they were sacred to many cultures around the world in old times. Because of this, their feathers were regarded as gifts from the Gods…and today if a feather is found it is said to be a gift from Spirit—be it a person’s spirit guide, angel, or deceased loved one. There is something special in every found feather, and feathers can be used to bring good things into one’s life. Every Bird’s feather contains the power of the Universe… Feathers are magically ruled by the element of Air. But each feather also can hold other special powers; depending on the bird it came from, its color and place of discovery and other factors.   

The feather represents the element of air, of the intellect and the realm of thought, which is the first step toward creation. Bird feathers are symbols of the wind, the mind and new opportunities. Finding a feather can also be a sign that we are connecting to the divine and the creator God. Finding Bird feathers is a reflection of change and of reaching new levels of consciousness.  

*** Orisha Worshiper practices open pathways to the sublime in all of us, and foster a deep and loving respect for all that lives through stones, crystals, trees, plants, animals and humans themselves. To the Worshiper, all is alive, all is sacred and all is connected in a cosmic web of beauty…  

  Reference Sources: Wikipedia =

Ogbo Edan *** Ogboni Society…

*** Good Character Is What Adorns A Man…  

Ooni Adesoji Aderemi Ile-Ife Yoruba

Ogboni  =  known as Osugbo in Ijèbú  is a fraternal institution indigenous to the Yoruba language-speaking polities of Nigeria, Republic of Bénin and Togo, as well as among the Edo/Benin people groups. The society performs a range of political and religious functions, including exercising a profound influence on regents and serving as high courts of jurisprudence in capital offenses. Its members are generally considered to be part of the nobility of the various Yoruba kingdoms of West Africa.

Though versions or lodges of this fraternal group are found among the various types of Yoruba polities – from highly centralized kingdoms and empires like Oyo, to the independent towns and villages of the Ègbá and the Èkiti. The Ogboni are recognizable for their veneration of the personified Earth (Ilè or Oduduwa) and their emphasis on both authority and benevolent service to the community. While membership in the Ogboni generally signified a high level of power and prestige, the society held pre-eminent political authority among decentralized groups like the Ègbá, where they were intimately involved in the selection of rulers that served as little other than figureheads in practice. In contemporary Yoruba land, Ogboni members still command great power and influence in the affairs of their societies, although this is largely due to the history of their respective chieftaincies and not to any official authority.

Ogboni lodges were one of the main commissioners of brass jewelry and sculpture in pre-colonial Yoruba land, using the metal’s rust-resistant qualities as an apt metaphor for the immortal functions and beliefs of Ogboni adepts. The most recognizable of these symbols was a pair of Ogboni initiates, one male and one female, attached by a chain and worn around the neck. The pair are thought to symbolize the attachment of the sexes in procreation and balanced society. Generally, one or both figures will hold a thumb in the grip of the opposite hand, demonstrating the paramount Ogboni handsign denoting initiation and membership.

Various fraternities in Nigeria have incorporated references and insignia from the original Ogboni, including the Reformed Ogboni Fraternity, the Indigenous Ogboni, and various others. Many of these contemporary societies combine elements of Ogboni’s historical functions with superficially similar institutions like Freemasonry and the Rotary Club.

Olori Oluwo Ogboni Ibadan

Similar traditional institutions combining political, judicial, and sacred duties exist among the various ethnic nationalities of southern Nigeria, including Nze na Ozo in Igbo-speaking southeast Nigeria and Ekpe/Ngbe/Ugbe in the Cross River region of southeastern Nigeria and southwestern Cameroon. Initiatory secret societies are a common feature of pre-colonial government across much of West Africa and Central Africa.

Oluaye Oba Ogboni Agbaye

History and Structure: With regard to how to describe the Ogboni,  members of the Ogboni “society” would likely take offence at having their organization referred to as a “cult” or a “secret society” and would probably refer to themselves as a “lodge” similar to that of the Masons. In Nigeria the Ogboni are commonly referred to as a “secret society” by Nigerians, but that Ogboni members would likely self-identify the group as a social club whose members help each other in matters such as commerce, marriage. Consequently, in this Response the Ogboni will be referred to as a Society. There has been a lot of “cross-fertilization” between the Masons and groups such as the Ogboni, since there are many Masons in Nigeria and that they have been there since the 19th century.  

  The traditional Ogboni society was part of the checks and balances system of the Yoruba kingdoms. They were kingmakers, and disposed of both a religious as well as a judicial function. They had also the power to dethrone the Oba (the king) and could order him to kill himself. They are thought to still dispose of considerable local influence, forming part of the traditional power network to regulate societies and control resources. It is assumed that through their membership they also have strong connections to official state structures.  

  First we have the Osugbo gbede which is normally referred to as being owned by the Oba. This is for the Oba’s chiefs. There is Ogboni Aborigine fraternity of Nigeria, there is Iwule Ogboni and it is believed to be for the elderly four. Firstly we have Ogboni Out Ife, there is Ogboni Arapa Nika, this came from Akoko in Ondo State, there is Ogboni Ara Ife, there is Ogboni Akala, and there is Ogboni Agamasa, Ogboni Ogenete and also the Reformed Ogboni Fraternity which came out of Ogboni Aborigine.  

 The Osugbo’s being titled chief of the Oba can however attend functions of the Aborigine because they are respected members of the society. It is therefore not expressly possible for a member of one society to gatecrash into another’s. Asked to state when the traditional Ogboni was created, the Oluwo Ogboni Aborigine, Iledi Iyadamilola I, Imota Chief Emmanuel Olatunji Akinyemi said nobody could say when Ogboni started. “What is known about Ogboni is that they existed before the advent of colonialism, they ruled with the Oba, they governed and adjudicated matters in traditional ways and they were so meticulous that even when the colonialists came, they found the system so formidable that they coudn’t tamper with it,” he explained.  

  *** Ogboni society, including its history, structure, rituals and Sources indicate that information about the Ogboni society is limited. Several sources also indicate that they are referred to as a “secret” society or as a “cult”.   

Ogboni Society…

Historical Background: Ogboni society is an “assembly of elders” that created a cult based on the cosmology of Yoruba.   The Ogboni considered themselves as the “privileged intermediaries between the Living and the Ancestors”. They venerated mother Earth or goddess Earth, Sources indicate that the Ogbonis acted as the “check and balance” against the power of the king to the point of having the authority to remove him if necessary. The Ogbonis had judicial functions, their primary role was the preservation of the “Ife oracle”.  Priests of the Obgoni society are often called on to consult the oracle to determine a number of sensitive issues, such as Ancestral support for the King. In fact, members of the Obgoni society are Guardians and Protectors of the Divine Oracle and Laws. The Ogboni society was the highest court in Yorubaland, with the power to judge powerful individuals that did not face justice in the open judicial system.  

Apena Ogboni Oranfe

The only Yoruba parts of Nigeria where they still have some real influence on the traditional administration of the cities are in the Egba, Egbado and Abeokuta parts of Nigeria.  However, the Ogboni still have “quite significant” influence and power over the affairs of the nation. Nevertheless, the political integrity of both the Ogboni Society and the Reformed Ogboni Fraternity “has been called into question given their strong links with Freemasonry, the Rotary Club, or the Rosicrucian Brotherhood”.  All Ogbonis are under the authority of the political leader, referred to as the Alafin, who has the authority to convoke the priests into “extraordinary sessions”.   However, the structure of the Ogboni society is a “secret that only an Ogboni member can answer,” risking death by poisoning.

Rituals and Ceremonies: particularities about the rituals and ceremonies of the Ogboni society are a “Secret that Only an Ogboni Member can Answer,” risking his or her own death. Membership is open to Yorubas and other ethnicities, and that men and women are eligible for initiation within the society, although the “predominance of Male Elders is undeniable”.

The society is “potentially very dangerous for individuals who join them”.  Even though positions within the Ogboni society are not inherited, if one person’s parent was a member of the Ogboni Society, and that person had been exposed to their activities meetings held at his or her parents’ house while the child was present so that over the years the child grew up knowing the identities of the Ogboni; or the parent deliberately pledged that his or her child would become a member.  In most situations, individuals deliberately and voluntarily join these societies because they want power, financial rewards, and success….  

Lanre Awoyemi Oluwo Ejaloninbu

*** The Apena was the spokesman of the Ogboni society which was a central and important institution in all Yoruba states. The Ogboni has been defined as a ‘secret and ritually united corporation of political and religious leaders and its special priest. The Egba Ogboni as the ‘real leaders of the town’. The Ogboni was once the civic court, the town council and the Electoral College… In principle the Ogboni stood between the King and his subjects, preventing the one from being despotic and ensuring the proper subordination of the other.

Oluaye Oba Ogboni Agbaye & Ogboni Society of Cuba                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reference Sources: Wikipedia =

The Speaking Power of Altars…

An Altar In A House Of Worship To Honor Our Ancestors…

The word Altar comes from the Latin Altārium, meaning – high  and also to the Latin Adolere, which means – to ritually burn or sacrifice. Nowadays, the Altar is the place for non-sacrificial religious rites such as communion or weddings, and is a metaphor for offerings. They do not have to be big and fancy; they can be so subtle that even the people you live with can be unaware of their existence. The purpose of an Altar is an area of focus. Here is a small area within your home which serves as your outward spiritual focus. It reminds us that there is far more to life than the everyday striving for survival and success. It is a place where the small objects that are sacred and meaningful to us can be gathered together and treated with respect.

ALTARS = An elevated place or structure, as a mound or platform, at which religious rites are performed or on which sacrifices are offered to Ancestors. A usually raised structure or place on which sacrifices are offered or incense is burned in worship —often used figuratively to describe a thing given great or undue precedence or value especially at the cost of something else sacrificed his family life on the Altar of career advancement.

Altars could be natural objects or man-made constructs. Four materials are recorded as being used in Altars: Stone – Earth – Metal & Brick. An Altar could stand alone, or it was located in the courtyard of a shrine. Altars were places where the divine and human worlds interacted. Altars were places of exchange, communication, and influence. Sacrifices were the primary medium of exchange in altar interactions & the essential act of external worship. The act of sacrifice moved the offering from the profane to the sacred, from the visible to the invisible world.

Altars can be placed anywhere, on top of a dresser, a window sill or small table. Simply create an empty space and slowly, carefully, place upon it the items which are special to you. Maybe a crystal, a cloth of inspiring color, flowers, a candle, or whatever feels appropriate. Now you have created your own personal sacred space. When you light your candle and gaze upon your Altar, it will help you to remember who you are and why we are here. Altars serve us as a great source of strength and focus for the Light.

In the fast pace of today’s world there is a growing need to reconnect to the sacred elements of life. An Altar can fulfill this need through being a powerful visible representation of the spiritual energy that surrounds and sustains us. It serves as a kind of reminder of our connection to spiritual realms.

Creating and using an Altar can be an effective means of forging a connection to higher powers. This can help infuse the most ordinary aspects of life with a divine sense of meaning. An Altar dedicated to increasing your spiritual awareness can become an energetic point of convergence for symbols that propel the human spirit forward. It can be used as a place to pray and ask for divine guidance, a place to listen to messages from the spiritual realm and a place to give thanks for blessings received.

Creating an Altar is a sacred way to call spiritual energies into your home. It reinforces your intention to invite more peace, serenity, and love into your space. It can be used for prayer, meditation, chanting, or just a place of sheer beauty and connection to the Divine. Once you create your Altar, make a daily ritual to meditate or pray near it. Use the sacred energy you’ve created to remind you of your highest spiritual intentions as you honor Mother NatureConnect with the energy of Air – Fire – Earth –  Water. Sometimes the theme for your Altar will come to you in an unexpected way.

Building Altars For Personal Transformation = Creating an Altar with the intention for transformation is a powerful way to keep your focus on your intentions. We make altars all of the time. Some we create on purpose, some out of routine habit. The photos of your family on your hearth is an altar as such as the extensive altars inside of a place of worship. “An Altar can simply reflect your spiritual truth back to you or it can be a working altar which holds your intention and prayers”. An Altar for transformation might address losing weight, healing a breakup or divorce, calling in more financial prosperity, a new relationship, a new project, or even the archetypal energy you want to invite into your life.

The very foundation of these spiritual teachings is the Law of Personal Responsibility, which states in part that we are responsible for all our experiences. By the laws that we establish with our thoughts, acts, and words, we are the creators of all our experiences. In other words, our experiences in life are reflecting back to us where we are in consciousness. In addition, great emphasis is placed upon understanding how our minds work and how we may more effectively use our minds in a way that it has been designed to be used. The teachings of this philosophy help us discern between the thoughts of our mind and the gentle promptings of our soul.

These spiritual teachings are filled with inspirational quotes, affirmations, spiritual sayings, and spiritual exercises. The spiritual light of the Living Light Philosophy illumines a path to a conscious awareness of our own soul, our own divinity, but it is up to us to make the effort to walk upon that path.

THE SPEAKING POWER OF AN ALTAR: Life and death lie in the tongue.  There are people who have the authority to speak over others. An instance is the authority of parents to either speak blessing or curse over their children. There are two ways of speaking over someone: Benediction and Malediction. The first means Blessing and the second means Curse. There is undoubtedly, power in speaking. Speaking does invoke or incite what is said, but there is something that gives spiritual essence to what is being spoken, and that is an Altar.

Altars give spiritual voice to every speaking. Through blood offered on an altar, spiritual entities affect physical beings. It speaks life for us over and above every malediction that any other Altar speaks against us. But we connect this altar through sacrifice. Altar is a place of sacrifice. Not all sacrifices are of blood but every sacrifice whether bloody or not, has a life! Quality time spent with Ancestors can be the Altar through which you connect the everlasting Altar. The underline is that you need to sacrifice on an altar that will connect you to Ancestor’s Altar.

The Power of a Personal Altar: Men who build and oil their Altars, never get deterred by, nor become victims of, the frictions of life. An Altar is a place not necessarily physical set apart for interaction with the spiritual. It is a place where our lives are powered. Our speed in life depends on the power of our Altar. If we don’t raise our own Altar, we’ll become a victim of another man’s altar. In a typical traditional African setting, each child has an Altar built for him by his parents. It is on this Altar that prayers, incantations, and most importantly, sacrifices are made for him until he gets to a reasonable age, when he’s left with the responsibility of running his Altar.

Quite evidently, those families that take their Altars seriously, lead more notable lives and stand out in the community. This Altar concept is also seen in most other religions. This therefore, lends credence to the fact that one’s personal Altar is the taproot of his spiritual life. The deeper this taproot, the taller your life grows; the more resilient you get, the more you boom and flourish, and the more relevant you are to your world – just like the palm tree. Little wonder the bible says “the righteous shall flourish like the palm tree.” The palm tree has an extremely deep tap root.

Finally, we learnt that it is sacrifice that makes an Altar. Without sacrifices, an Altar is powerless. There’s no access to the spiritual that costs nothing!  Our Altar is the place we first dedicate our offerings, and our seeds to Ancestors. May the holy spirit of Ifa opens our eyes to this spiritual truth.

Reference Sources: Wikipedia = Awo Falokun =

GELEDE = Powerful Mothers…

                          Mothers *  Ancestors * Deities…

 The Gelede spectacle of the Yoruba & Fon is a public display by colorful masks which combines art and ritual dance to amuse, educate and inspire worship. Gelede Celebrates Mothers – Awon Iya Wa, a group that includes female Ancestors and Deities as well as the Elderly Women of the community, and the power and spiritual capacity these women have in society. However, this power may also be destructive and take the form of witchcraft; therefore, Gelede serves the function of appeasing this power, as well. The Gelede social agenda rests on – life is delicate and should be lived with caution and with an emphasis on diplomacy, consideration, respect and harmony.

Most Yoruba myths of origin can be found in the divination narratives knows at Odu Ifa which contains a number of poems called Ese Ifa. An Ese Ifa explains the origins of Gelede as beginning with Yemoja, “The Mother of all the Deities and all living things.”

Yewajobi – Yemoja  could not have children and consulted an Ifa oracle, who advised her to offer sacrifices and to dance with wooden images on her head and metal anklets on her feet. After performing this ritual, she became pregnant. Her first child was a boy, nicknamed “Efe“- Humorist; the Efe mask emphasizes song and jests because of the personality of its namesake. Yewajobi – Yemoja second child was a girl, nicknamed “Gelede” – Obese like her mother Gelede loved dancing.

After getting married themselves, neither Gelede or Efe‘s partner could have children. The Ifa oracle suggested they try the same ritual that had worked for their mother. No sooner than Efe and Gelede performed these rituals- dancing with wooden images on their heads and metal anklets on their feet- they started having children. These rituals developed into the Gelede masked dance and was perpetuated by the descendants of Efe and Gelede.

Although Gelede ceremony may be staged at any time of the year to better the lot of an individual, to cleanse the society of pestilence, to induce rain, to enrich human fertility, to enlist the support of supernatural forces and the – Powerful Mothers in wartime, and to honor the dead, the most elaborate performance occurs during the annual festival.

Once the exact dates of the festival are fixed, usually through divination, the Chief Priestess – Iyalashe notifies the head of the community and the important chiefs. Messages then go out to all members of the Gelede society outside the town or working far away to return home for the celebration.

The festival begins with an all-night concert called Efe, which features the Efe male mask, who uses satire to entertain and educate. Given the concern of the Gelede society with peace and social stability, it is not surprising that didactic themes recur in Efe songs. After the Efe dance, most of the attendees spend the morning sleeping in preparation for the afternoon dance, which takes place in the marketplace and features pairs of male dancers who perform to fast-paced music with a vigorous beat.

The Gelede ceremony involves carefully choreographed dance, singing and music, and especially drumming. The performances are given by men, wearing masks that feature sculpted images of scenes including animals and people or sewing machines and drums. The pairs of men masquerade as women to amuse, please and placate the mothers who are considered very powerful, and who may use their powers for good or destructive purposes. These powers are especially linked to childbirth. The abilities they possess may be activated either consciously or unconsciously.

The Gelede “Mask” is more accurately a headdress, since it rests on top of the head and the wearer’s face is covered by a cloth veil. The headdress takes the form of a human head, on top of which are motifs that are intended to entertain onlookers but, in addition, usually address social concerns that may also be expressed in songs that are part of the masquerade. Individuals or families will usually go to any length to make their headdresses as attractive and humorous as possible.

Most of the headdresses have facial adornments, ranging from lineage marks to decorative tattoos, which are either incised or painted. The headdress is to the costume what the Head – Ori is to the human body. It is an index of identification and the essence of the masker’s personality as long as he is inside the mask. In spite of the comical representations that often appear on the headdress, the face below the superstructure remains serene, as if stressing the paradox that is life-and the need to live life with special care.

The Ketu-Yoruba people are credited with the invention of Gelede sometime in the latter part of the eighteenth century according to Oral traditions throughout the region.  A popular Yoruba saying proclaims, oju to ba ri Gelede ti de opin iran – The eyes that have seen Gelede, have seen the ultimate spectacle. Gelede effective power and impact comes from its multi-media format in which the arts of song, dance, costume and music combine to create moving artistic experiences.

Gelede pays homage to the Spiritual Powers of Women, especially Elderly Women known affectionately as “Our Mothers,” Awon Iya Wa. The powers possessed by such Women, comparable to those of the Gods, Spirits, or Ancestors, may be used for the benefit or the destruction of society.  When manifesting their destructive dimension such Elderly Women are termed Aje – Witches.  If angered, they can bring down individuals and entire communities.

   The Yoruba & Fon Markets Are Controlled By Women…To honor Women’s economic power and contributions, many Gelede headdresses depict Women’s heads carrying the goods they sell in the marketplace. Many Gelede masks depict animals that serve as metaphors for human actions and attributes as well as illustrations of popular proverbs and songs that often accompany the mask’s appearance. Animals in devouring motifs are an important means of conveying the concept of competing forces in social as well as spiritual realms.

This Gelede mask displays two snakes wrapped around gourd rattles at the sides of a peaked hairstyle.  The rattles are the regalia of priestesses whose spiritual powers are evoked by the snakes. Notice that the face of the male performer is clearly seen through the thin veil of cloth.  Unlike other Yoruba masking traditions where the performer’s identity must be hidden because they deal with spiritual forces, Gelede maskers can be seen since they focus on forces in the world.

As dusk approaches after a dazzling array of masqueraders imaging countless aspects of Yoruba life and thought, a final masker – one that synthesizes Goddess, Ancestress, and Priestess appears to conclude and bless the Gelede spectacle.  Her white ensemble glowing in the growing darkness, Iya Odua (Mother Odua) moves with measured stride toward the marketplace accompanied by her priestess, her attire mirroring that of the masker visually to unite spiritual and earthly realms.  Iya Odua slow, stately tread conveys her Age, Wisdom, and Sacred Power. Her whiteness symbolizes her cool, covert demeanor and her post-menopausal purity for she is the creative, protective, nurturing mother of the gathered crowd, her offspring. Iya Odua appearance assures the community that the lavish spectacle has pleased and placated her, and that the Mothers will use their power and influence for the benefit of all.

Gelede masquerades are spectacles performed by the Yoruba people in Nigeria and DanXome that celebrate the Mystical Power Of WomenGelede refers to the concept of honoring women and their innate powers so that the entire community may reap the benefits of their life-giving forces.  There are many different variations of the Gelede spectacle, which varies from region to region, but this concept remains consistent throughout all of them. 

It is an incredible artistic manifestation of the power of Women which is evident in the concepts, costumes and masks, and location of the spectacle. The World is fragile, meaning that the Gelede celebration is warring with the evil of the world without killing. The preservation of the Gelede celebration and its significance and homage to Women is a critical foundation of a community in so far as its cultural and social identity.

The festival involves colorful masks, striking headdresses, festive music, and miraculous performances and importantly the celebration of Womanhood.

Reference Sources: Henry John Drewal = Margaret Thompson Drewal =

Libation = Myth & Divinity…

              **Libation Is A Powerful Spiritual Science**

 Cultural survival is not about preservation, sequestering indigenous peoples in enclaves like some sort of zoological specimens. Change itself does not destroy a culture. All societies are constantly evolving. Indeed a culture survives when it has enough confidence in its past and enough say in its future to maintain its spirit and essence through all the changes it will inevitably undergo. 

“Pour libation for your Father and Mother who rest in the valley of the dead. God will witness your action and accept it. Do not forget to do this even when you are away from home. For as you do for your parents, your children will do for you also”

Libation in Africa is a ritual of heritage, a drink offering to honor and appease the Creator, the lesser divinities, our sacred Ancestors, humans present and not present, as well as the environment. This ritual is also practiced in many other parts of the world. The ritual achieves this objective by promoting and The ultimate purpose is to promote the cosmic order of oneness and balance of the beings and things in the universe. Safeguarding the correct relations among and between all the beings and things in existence. The origins of libation are so old that the first records of the ritual can be found in the legends, myths, sacred literatures.

Libation is found throughout the African world: The continent as well as the Americas, the Caribbean and other parts of the world where Africans dwell. The significance of this ritual transcends its distribution across the immense time & space correlation that is occupied by the African experience of life. In fact, this ritual is a marker of African identity. Its persistence across place and places, and time and times, says much about the origin of all Africans, about their relation to each other and about cultural transmission in general.

Divinities are the central characters in the worship, which is a parable on the maintenance of the entire cosmos, not just humanity. Most of the action takes place in the realm of divinity, for in the African worldview, it is ultimately here that power lies. Humanity is initially the active source of discord, but the human role very quickly becomes purely passive and is in fact outweighed by divine intervention, ultimately with libation to save the world.

The drink offering in this myth is literally as well as figuratively an exchange for the blood of humanity and the restoration and preservation of the cosmic order. The role of liquid offering is central in the ritual of libation, the ultimate meaning of which is the necessity for the restoration and maintenance of the cosmic order. The regular performance of this ritual drama is therefore made mandatory upon all African.

The central concept in almost all these meanings arises from the state of satisfaction and even pleasure that is born from the absence of discomfort induced by the cooling property of water. It is this basic meaning that is extended to embrace the many shades of meaning that arise in all of these words. Thus, aspects of the person, places and even actions may be cool, be in a cool state or be done in a cool manner. This notion represents the meaning and objective of libation, which is to ensure the oneness of all the beings and things in the cosmos through the maintenance of this divine cosmic order. The overall emphasis is upon maintaining the correct behavior towards all beings and things in the cosmos, and therefore the correct relationships with them.

A libation may be poured with any drinkable liquid, including water, milk, wine, beer, or strong spirits, though alcohol has been the dominant choice for some generations now, especially in West Africa and the West.

In African practice there is a sharp distinction between some things that are done with the right hand and other things that are to be done only with the left hand. Libation is poured with the right hand because this is the hand reserved by African tradition for such activity as offering, eating and drinking. A libation often accompanies offerings of food and other things considered good and worthy of the higher powers, but libation should not be confused with those other offerings or with entire ceremonies of which it may form a part. For example, from the earliest known times, libations are always poured as part of the rituals which mark the African cycle of life: Naming Ceremonies, Initiation Ceremonies, Marriage Ceremonies and Transition Ceremonies. Libation is also poured at other occasions, such as to mark the settlement of a dispute, before cutting down trees, at the Installment of Chiefs, at the many festivals in the African calendar, at the opening of Vodou, Candomblé and other African spiritual gatherings, and indeed in every ceremony and gathering in the African way of life.

The general purpose is to safeguard or make amends and seek forgiveness for infracting any of the relationships in the cosmic order, but the specific occasions and themes in libation may be many. If properly done, the person, the family, the clan, the community or those present and participating and or those on whose behalf the libation is poured may receive several benefits from a libation. They may benefit through being fortified by the renewal and or restoration which this ritual offers. They may also receive benefit through the security that comes from the knowledge of the spiritual connection and oneness with the Supreme One, with the divinities, with the Ancestors, among themselves singly and collectively, and with the physical environment. It is the preservation of these connections and the beneficial results of understanding and maintaining them that this ritual represents and promotes.

Libation, like any activity that is at once both sacred and communal, is useful and important because it helps to overcome fears, anxieties and frustrations. It promotes knowledge of and respect for Elders and the Ancestors, hope and healing, unity and harmony, all through the reinforcement of common bonds. It also lends itself towards the achievement of solidarity, which results from common participation in any such communal activity. Libation also functions beneficially by helping those present to be psychologically prepared for a task at hand, especially through the self-confidence that grows from the knowledge – not only that all is well in their relationships with the higher and lesser powers in the cosmic order, but also by becoming focused upon what is to be done during a specific forthcoming undertaking.

Oduduwa Templo Dos Orixás Brazil

Libation is founded upon the oneness of the universe and the relation and interdependence of all beings and things therein. Its function is to maintain: the harmony, balance and unity of the cosmos through maintaining the optimum relations among the various beings and things, preventing any of these relations from being impaired, or nullifying the threat of such impairment. The significance of libation transcends the ritual itself…

The truth is that both people and culture have made this immensely long journey, for when a people migrate, or are made to migrate, they do not leave their culture behind. That is not possible, for culture is a defining characteristic of a people and inseparable from its agents. Libation is therefore, in the terms of, both ‘trans-generational and transcontinental’. Since libation defines the temporal and physical boundaries of the African world, it may therefore help to define the boundaries of African Studies, the study of the African world.

!!! On the matter of what to offer the Ancestor or Deities, we have the choice of Water, Wine and “Hard” Liquor. The choice of liquid depends on the nature of the libation and prayer and what your aim is in invoking (awakening) the Ancestors.

Water is for cooling and healing and creating or reconciling relationships. Liquor is fiery and is usually used to rouse, cement, ignite, protect and perform strong purification. Wine is mid-way between the two and is good for friendly relations, between man and spirit. This is an important matter as many of us do not realize that when you pour libation you are awakening the Ancestors.

Ideally, once you have poured libation you should be talking to the Ancestors like you talk to any other living person. You should converse and build the relationship. Over time, you will hear messages in distinct ways. Sometimes several people will hear the message or hear parts of the message that then can be pieced together to make one complete communication from the Ancestors.

Ejubona Ijebu Ogun State Nigeria Awo “Ogunda-Ogbe” Efuwape Olatunji

** The person officiating Libation must possess the spiritual force to open the way to Spiritual communication. We go with the safest route during this occasion and choose to allow those that are older, trained or more versed than us conduct such affairs. “Libation is a powerful spiritual science. Learn the steps well”

Reference Sources:

TREES = Rituals & Ceremonies…

“It is their belief that when a family member dies, their spirit resides in the natural environment to watch over their kin, relay messages to and from God, and grant blessings, wishes, and requests.”

In Africa the practice of Tree worship is based on the belief that Ancestor spirits live in the Trees and forests as well as any other natural formations that are considered peaceful.

Sacred Trees are highly manicured and sculpted so that they can provide a sheltered place for gatherings. In many villages they were the center of social activity—from community dances to court sessions, as well as metaphors for the strength of community bonds. And as the mythology goes, Sacred Trees represent a cosmic connection between Earth and the Heavens. The Trees helped people measure the passing of time through seasonal changes and became the centerpiece of local folklore.

In many cultures around the world, Trees are used in creation stories and myths to explain human, and spiritual, origins. Such trees frequently represent the axis of the universe that connects different realms of the cosmos.  Its branches hold up the heavens, its trunk stands in the earthly realm, and its roots descend into the underworld.

          The supernatural characters and powers of sacred trees…

In many religions, sacred places as well as Orishas were thought to possess supernatural characters and the power to carry out miracles or as having magical powers. The same attitude is found throughout history as an outcome of tree Worship-Adoration-Veneration.

Sacred Trees were sometimes described as possessing huge or unusual dimensions or miraculous physical characters.  Frequently, sacred Trees were regarded as having omnipotent magic powers to punish, cure, or to carry out miracles and to confer unusual abilities.

In many cultures around the globe sacred Trees are strictly protected, and injuring the Tree in any way is regarded as sacrilege. This deep faith has been established in the course of generations by tradition and stories of actual punishment meted out by the Gods-Souls-Orishas to which the Trees are dedicated. Injuring the Tree, especially cutting it down may leave the resident spirit homeless and it would soon take its revenge.

In some communities fear of revenge by the spirits in response to any harm to the sacred Tree is so great that special ceremonies, which may include sacrifices, prayers, ceremonies, are held to pacify the angry spirit before a Tree is cut.

Not surprisingly, any kind of harm done to the sacred Tree-Grove-Forest is feared to cause a furious punitive response by a supernatural being. This fear is so deeply imprinted in human conscience of various Tribes*Communities that the people are afraid even to pick a leaf or to collect dead wood from below the Tree, which may carry an immediate sentence of death.

Throughout history, and in many cultures, sacred Trees were regarded as omens and oracles, as well as soothsayers that may speak in human voices. Punishment of whoever violates the Tree All over the world sacred Trees are protected by a system of taboos and ceremonies which were developed to prevent any damage. These Trees are regarded as the abode of supernatural beings, gods, souls and any harm to such abodes are to be heavily punished. Cutting down sacred Trees is regarded as a particularly serious offence against the supernatural element because such an act leaves the spirit homeless. There is thus a need to repatriate these supernatural beings by means of special ceremonies.

***The manner in which clothes are tied to a sacred Tree to transfer personal troubles or using objects that “absorb” the supernatural powers of the Tree are typical examples of contact magic. Things which have once been in contact with each other at a distance after the physical contact has been severed. Practically all these manners are methods of “conveying the divine effluence” from the Tree to the devoted people. In this way the supernatural being, which is connected with the sacred Tree, has the power to grant petitions.

Sacred Trees are believed to have magic curative powers in Africa, even species of some plants or parts of it that are not known as having medicinal properties, such as the leaves of a Sacred Oak (Iroko) are regarded as omnipotent forms of medication when administered externally as a decoction. Clearly, the leaves acquire the healing powers when granted by Orishas; just as actual medicinal plants gathered in the vicinity of the sacred Tree are more potent. Most of the uses of sacred Trees for divine blessings or cure seem based on magical contact.

Baobab Tree Senegal

IROKO = Milicia Excelsa  = African Teak : Iroko is a large hardwood Tree from the west coast of tropical Africa the Tree is known to the Yoruba as Irókò or loko and is believed to have supernatural properties.  It is one of the woods sometimes referred to as African teak, although it is unrelated to the teak family. The Tree is feared in some cultures where it originates and hence is shunned or revered with offerings. Yoruba people believe that the Tree is inhabited by a spirit, and anybody who sees the Iroko-man face to face becomes insane and speedily dies. The spirit of the Iroko can be heard in houses which use Iroko wood, as the spirit of the Iroko is trapped in the wood.  It is often protected when the surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and gifts are given to it. Fertility and birth are associated with it and its timber is used to make ceremonial drums and coffins.

 Benefits Of The Iroko Tree:  With the tremendous increase in human population and the need for activities such as construction, cultivation, rearing of animals, and environmental development, there has been a tremendous rise on the loss of natural habitats, ecosystems, wild animals, vegetation etc. One important tree that has suffered this sort of habitat loss is the Iroko Tree. Despite its reduction in number, researchers have revealed that there are several incredible benefits of Iroko Tree that makes it stand out from other Trees in the ecosystem.

The Tree features in many myths and tales. It consistently reflects a few important symbolic images. The Tree stands between heaven and earth and is associated with creation as well as the underworld. The Tree is a maternal symbol: a protector and provider who gives fruit, other foods and medicines, provides a reservoir for water, protects against the elements and evil spirits. The Tree often symbolizes human fecundity. It may also be a phallic and paternal symbol, symbolically linking people with their ancestors while being a symbol of political unity.

Finally, the deciduous characteristic of the tree gives it an ambiguous image which reflects the tree’s power to give life and rebirth as well as to bring about death. In many African myths and stories, the tree is portrayed as an Ancestral symbol of wisdom, authority and custom, providing a bond between the dead and the living.  

It Is Dark  And The Trees In The Farm Are Silent. One Who Taps Palm Wine Must Pay Attention To His Climbing Rope.

Reference Sources:  Blessing Okpala = Wikipedia =

Blood Sacrifices = To Make Sacred

  Blood Is Not Just Blood, It Is A Sacred Essence. Blood That flows To The Breast To Give Mother’s Milk, blood That Flows To The Testicles To Bring The Sperm Of Life.

13428025_744668002341207_6052268390581420041_n

When there Is An Imbalance One Must Give Back To The Energy Of The Earth. The Idea Of Blood As Token Of Beliefs Is Powerful & For Many Is Disturbing. Blood Has A Role In many Religions: In A Catholic Worship Of Taking Communion Worshipers Drink The Blood Of Jesus Christ. Every Time You Take Holy Communion You Are Drinking Human Blood.

*** A “sacrifice” is defined as the offering up of something precious for a cause or a reason. Making atonement is satisfying someone or something for an offense committed. God said, “I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves. In other words, those who are covered by the blood sacrifice are set free from the consequences of sin.

All of the many, many blood sacrifices seen throughout the Old Testament were foreshadowing the true, once-for-all-time sacrifice to come so that, without the blood, there is no forgiveness. This shedding of blood is a substituting act. Therefore “the blood ‘makes atonement’ at the cost of the animal’s life or “makes atonement in the place of the life”

The symbolism of blood as life and applies blood sacrifices were temporary and only atoned for sin partially and for a short time, hence the need to repeat the sacrifices.

Blood Sacrifice – This intense ritual has been around forever and still exists today in many parts of the world. There has always been cultures throughout history that have made sacrifice to their God Deities or idols. All in order to please them and to gain favor from them.

There were many times throughout the Bible that sacrificial offerings were made to God. In most cases a virgin lamb was used. You will note that in most animal sacrifices the animal is to be virgin. This is because it is pure. You will also note that God only found blood sacrifice pleasing. We have the story of Cain and Abel where Abel used blood sacrifice and found the favor of God and Cain used vegetables and did not find favor with God so Cain got jealous and killed Abel. We have Abraham in the Bible who was asked to sacrifice his firstborn  son to God. Replacing animal life for human life. But then God stopped him for he was only testing him.

10592942_692417334145778_8825471226740942322_n

Let’s face it, the Bible is full of Blood Sacrifice and killing all in the name of God. Makes you wonder doesn’t it…

We have the Aztecs who were very big on Human and animal sacrifice. It was an integral part of their Religion. They had many Blood thirsty Gods that needed to be pleased. As they saw it, the offering of blood through human sacrifice ensured the perpetuation of the universe. Spanish observers found the practice utterly revolting for Aztecs would take their victims… make them lay perfectly still while the High Priest took a stone knife and cut out their heart.

The Aztec priests were also into self mutilation. For instance, cutting their own genitalia and worst of all they would take a rope and embed it with large thorns. Then they would pierce their tongue and thread the thorn embedded rope through the tongue. The likes would have to be such an excruciating pain that they would leave their bodies and travel to other dimensions.

But the norm is to use that of an animal. For instance, using white doves or chickens. There are many different animals that can be used according to who you are conjuring up. Remember if they are virgin animals, it is all the more pleasing to the Entity. Because blood has an energy, a life force. Plus, it gives them some substance to take some form.

Remember… NEVER TORTURE AN ANIMAL!

**Blood sacrifice is very dangerous, especially for the inexperienced Diviner or Sorcerer.  You will probably end up the victim yourself by the hands of the Entity that you conjured up.

BELLS = Points Of Passage

BELLS = SUPERNATURAL ENCHANTMENT….

From very early times, there has been a link in myths and legends between Bells, water and spirits.  Water was seen as the element that joined the world of the living and the world of the dead. Spirits could make contact through water and the idea of spirits coming out of the sea would not have seemed strange. It was also believed that the spirits of people who died suddenly or violently, or who had not had a proper burial, would not rest and would wander the earth. This included the many sailors who were drowned in stormy seas; their bodies were often never found.

This may have come from their use in real life, to be rung for good or bad times. Bells were used in celebrations such as weddings or to call people to pray. From Celtic times, they were thought to contain magic. The Celtic priests would throw bells into rivers, streams or springs to get rid of bad spirits and make the water pure. Throughout history, bells have also been used to signal good or bad news. Bells were rung at funerals or as a warning of invaders or war. They were even rung in times of plague, to tell people to bring out their dead. There are many stories of ghostly bells heard at sea or near to the sea and they are nearly always a sign of bad luck or a warning of a storm or disaster.

Bells are used in a wide variety of contexts. You probably associate Bells with religious activity, and rightly so, because they’re often ordained for some spiritual purpose. While some Bells are merely decorative or serve some benign practical function, their appearance and use usually involves idolatry and magical enchantments. The value in this study is in helping you correctly interpret the influences of the familiar world around you. Bells, chimes, jingles, cymbals and gongs are commonly said to be good luck and are often used to ward off evil spirits. Could the ringing of bells really exercise spiritual power, enabling some supernatural influence in the natural realm.

Any spiritual significance of any Bell comes from the hearer of the Bell, rather than the Bell itself. A case in point is bells rung on Sunday morning, and other times of the week. To some, the Bells are calls to prayer, and sometimes for some people, a Bell at a specific time is a call to a specific prayer. To others hearing the same sounds, the Bells simply denote the time of day, and to still others, they sometimes are only a nuisance to be endured.

f3fa470e3fe4a578539c13e2ea753025

“BELLS GEOGRAPHICALLY widely distributed and usually possess a clearly defined cultural status.  Legends surround them, and beliefs abound concerning their special powers to induce rain or to dissolve storm clouds; to thwart demons when worn as amulets or when placed on animals, buildings, or conveyances; or to invoke curses and lift spells. The concept of their purifying action is ancient, as is their use in ritual, especially in the religions of eastern and southern Asia. Chinese rang Bells to communicate directly with spirits. East Asia, the fading tone of the Bell is considered spiritually significant. Russian Orthodoxy, Bells directly addressed the deity–hence, huge ones were cast by both peoples to lend greater authority.

Bells are consecrated before being used liturgically. Bells symbolize paradise and the voice of God. Among the most basic and widespread uses of Bells is signaling–marking significant points of ritual, calling to worship, tolling the hours, announcing events, rejoicing, warning, and mourning. It’s common around the globe to find the belling of livestock and horses. “In folk-magic brass is used to effectively repel witches and evil spirits. The protection is thought to be similar to that given by iron. It is used to make various kinds of amulets. Brass bells are hung around the necks of horses, cows and other animals to protect them against the evil eye.” The Hebrews wore crescent moons to ward off the evil eye and they attached Bells to their garments to ward off evil spirits.

 In the Middle Ages the supernatural world was believed to be very real and close. Special protective powers were desired by the superstitious and were attributed to certain objects, including Bells. The Church itself condoned the use of Bells to frighten away evil spirits and this ensured its survival and development. Bells were actually baptized, and once baptized had the power to ward off evil spells and spirits. The use of the dead Bell was typical of this belief, rung for the recently deceased to keep evil spirits from molesting the body.

       The dead Bell was therefore originally rung for two reasons: 
Firstly to seek the prayers of all Christians for a soul just departing; Secondly to drive away the evil spirits who stood at the bed’s foot and about the house, ready to seize their prey, or at least to molest and terrify the soul in its passage; but, by the ringing of the Bell evil spirits are afraid of the sounds of bells, they were kept away; and the soul, like a hunted hare, gained the head start.”

Passing Bell – The name given to the Bell which is rung in the church when a person is near to death; it is said to have the effect of frightening away the evil spirits which are ready to take the soul as it passes from the body. In the medieval period, Bells were sometimes rung to destroy witches, as it was supposed that the sound of Bells threw them off their night flight and rendered their diabolic magic ineffective. The ringing of Bells is also associated with funerals, so sounds mimicking bells were thought to forecast death. The ringing of a wine glass was such a sound, and had to be stopped before its reverberation ended. Ship’s bells were exempted from this superstition, because they signaled time and the changing of watch duties. But if they rang of their own accord, as in a storm, somebody was going to die.

Tones have a healing effect on our bodies, calm our minds and awaken our spirits. The resonance and vibration of sound releases stress and emotional blockages in the body and calms the mind. The calming of mind expands conscious awareness and connection with spirit. Wind chimes thereby help enhance the mind/body/spirit connection bringing us a sense of peace and well being.

 A clock is an instrument for measuring, indicating and maintaining the time. The word “Clock” is derived ultimately from the Celtic words Clagan and Clocca meaning “bell”. For horologists and other specialists the term “Clock” continues to mean exclusively a device with a striking mechanism for announcing intervals of time acoustically, by ringing a Bell, a set of chimes, or a gong.

In the Middle Ages, however, members of religious orders were expected to pray at definite times. Failure to maintain godly habits because of cloudiness or variable flames was not acceptable. The monks and nuns were summoned to prayer by a bell. Soon someone realized that the elaborate astronomical model was not needed; a system of striking the hour with a series of rings of the Bell was sufficient. Sometime after that, people added a dial to show the hours with a pointer (hand). A similar pointer for minutes was not needed until clocks greatly improved in accuracy. Although the first clocks were installed for use in religion, within a few years people began to keep time by the hours, since the ringing of the Bell often could be heard or the dial seen all over a village.

The Agogo/ Gankogui is comprised of two conical-shaped flange Bells of differing size joined at their apexes. Each Bell is made from two arched pieces of sheet iron with a pronounced tapering so that when their edges are welded together a deep cone-shaped vessel results. The larger Bell is approximately twice as long as the smaller one. The apex of each Bell is welded to the flared end of an elongated piece of iron that serves as the Bell’s handle. A wood stick is used to strike the rims of theBells, which are what vibrates most energetically when the Bells are played. The Agogo/Gankogui player holds the handle of the Bell in one hand with the Bells facing either upwards or downwards. The wood beater used to strike the Bells near their rims is held in the player’s other hand. Each Bell produces one basic pitch, and the larger Bell is noticeably lower in pitch than the smaller one. When held facing downwards, a seated player can, in addition to allowing the larger Bell to ring at full volume, also press it against her/his thigh to achieve subtle timbres effects.  

The Agogo/Gankogui is sometimes referred to as  “forged iron carrying a child”. The larger Bell is considered to be the parent of the smaller one. The larger Bell of the Agogo/Gankogui is tuned approximately one octave (Tin) below the smaller one (Go) – The person playing Agogo/Gankogui must have excellent time and not be distracted easily.

The Atoke/Apitua Bell, also known as a banana Bell, is common throughout West Africa. It is made from hand-forged iron and resembles a small boat or, as its other name suggests, a banana. The Bell is held in the palm of one hand, and sound is produced by striking it with a metal stick. Think of the characteristics associated with Bells. They usually were associated with carrying messages through the air and over distances. Clearing the air…changing the frequency in the air…clear messages as associated with the prophetic…these are the main ones that I connect with when it comes to Bells.

TimeKeepersIn our dream we may see Bells, or hear them or both. Bells are important to many religions and cultures around the world. They may be deep and resonant, light and joyous, sad or celebration. Bells are not things we see or hear as often as we might have in previous generations, but their symbolic significance still holds a profound sway over many of us. And while we may not see actual Bells so often in day to day life, we still have more abstract Bells around us in many forms – door Bells, the “ring tones” on our phones, the alarm clock and so on.
   The Meaning of a Bell in a Dream…  Bells call us to prayer, so in a dream they may symbolize a spiritual calling, or even a special message we are about to receive. Bells are used by town criers to announce important events, so in a dream we may hear Bells when our subconscious is trying to ensure we pay attention to an important piece of information it is trying to impart.

Bells at their most celebration signal an end to war, the highest of holy days or a wedding. To dream of such joyous Bells as this is a wonderful sign of exceptional and blessed transition. It may be an end to warning parts of our own personalities, a sign that we are reconciling deeply held internal conflicts. Dreams of such celebration Bells may signify a sacred union, a merging of our opposing male and female sides. These dreams can remind us of the very best that being alive is about. Bells can be joyous, celebration or even sacred. But Bells can be warnings, a call to action, a call for help or a symbol of passing. Bells help communicate between the world of matter and the world of spirit. If we dream of Bells we would do well to heed their message, whatever it may be. The ringing of a Bell or Bells can represent a message being delivered. For example, the ringing of a school Bell sends the message that class is beginning or ending. The ringing of church Bells sends a message that a significant event has occurred. The ringing of a delicate Bell or chime could mean there’s a message you need to pay attention to, either in the dream or in real life.

Throughout society and culture around the world, Bells have a multitude of meanings and purposes. Bells symbolize beginnings and endings. Bells are rung at weddings, funerals and to kick off boxing rounds. Church Bells gather people by summoning them to church or events. Bells announce that someone’s at the door or on the phone and warn us not to cross railroad tracks. Chimes tinkling in the breeze can relax us and help us guess the speed of the wind. Bells even have the power to tell us what to do! Alarm clocks tell us to wake up and school Bells tell us to get to class.

Reference Sources: Wikipedia = Bob Schlenker =

 

EGUNGUN: Ancestral Spirits…

                    Egungun  =   Life After Death    

                  Light as a feather! This is how softly your Ancestors might speak to you. And this is why you must listen intently – not just with your ears, but with every fiber in your being. They spoke to you yesterday, they speak to you today, they will speak to you tomorrow and they are speaking to you right now. But you’ll never hear them unless you are willing to sit in silence, to hear the powerful messages that are landing as gently as feathers.

Opa Iku

Egungun is regarded as the collective spirits of the Ancestors who occupy a space in heaven, hence they are called dwellers of heaven. These Ancestral spirits are believed to be in constant watch of their survivors on Earth. 

 Egungun DanXome Fon...

Egun (Ancestor) = To die Of Natural Causes At An Advanced Age, Leaving Behind Numerous Progeny, Like A Tree Bent From The Weight Of Its Fruits & In Harmony With the Divinities & The Ancestors – To Be Buried With The Performance Of All The Rites That Mark The Tradition Which Permit One To Enter Orun. Where One Is Reunited With The Ancestors Of One’s Lineage (Isheshe) to be Later Reincarnated Constitute For Yoruba The Good death.

 Egungun DanXome Fon...

Egungun = Ancestor Masquerade – We are born with death = Without the death of the flesh, there is no resurrection, no immortality. Every birth is the rebirth of an ancestor. The spirits could be invoked collectively and individually in time of need. The place of call is usually on the grave of the Ancestors, the family shrine, or the community grove. The Ancestral spirits have collective functions that cut across lineage and family loyalty. They collectively protect the community against evil spirits, epidemics, famine, ensuring the well being, prosperity, and productivity of the general community.

 Egungun DanXome Fon...

Although it is regarded dangerous for the Ancestral spirits to dominate day to day activities of the people on Earth, occasional physical appearances of Egungun/masquerades visibly demonstrate the closeness of the Ancestor to their survivors. The lineage or family ties become strengthened as each member displays his or her loyalty. The coming out of the lineage Egungun is a source of blessing and pride to the family. Egungun appearance is a time of festivity and entertainment, a time of apprehension of forces of evil and of engendering deep belief in divine guidance and protection. Above all, having an Egungun is a way of immortalizing one’s name because anytime the Egungun comes out, the drummers and women of the family sing in praise of one, recounting the heroic deeds of the family.

 Egungun DanXome Fon...

To understand Egungun mysteries one needs to understand the historical development of the cults. Every member of a community seems to be involved in the worship of Egungun, since everybody has at least one Ancestor to call upon. The Egungun ensemble acts as the medium for the masker’s transformation into his ancestors. An Egungun society is composed of Men and Women whose lineages have the right to present the Masquerade. **Men do the masking. ***Women never wear the costume, although they participate in the chorus that sings the oriki – praise poems and histories of the families. Elder Women of high title also perform invocations, prayers, and offerings. The Masker is kept at a distance from the surrounding crowd with the help of attendants dressed in Masquerade costumes of different types… 

 Egungun DanXome Fon...

In African culture it is common for the uninitiated to make direct contract with Ancestor spirits. The most prevalent process of communication is through dreams. Communication also occurs during participation in annual Ancestor festivals. Because such festivals are not common in this country. Worshipers in the West have created several viable alternatives. Using these alternative methods, the first step in the process of honoring the Ancestors is the construction of an Ancestor shrine used as a focal point for prayer and meditation. There are a number of traditional African methods for building an Ancestor shrine, some of which are very complex and require personal training. For example it is common in traditional African culture to bury revered Ancestors under the floors of the family home. The tomb of the Ancestor is the foundation of the Ancestral shrine.

 Egungun DanXome Fon...

ANCESTRAL SHRINES… The power to effectively invoke Spirits comes as a result of initiation and the training that is sanctioned by initiation. The exception to this rule is Egun (Ancestor spirits).  Ancestor initiations (Egungun, Isegun, Ato), but everyone is believed to have the power and the ability to communicate with the spirit of those blood relatives who have passed beyond this life.

Communication with your own Ancestors is a birthright. At times this communication can simply involve remembering a revered Ancestor and making use of the memory as a basis for making life decisions. In many ways Ancestor communication is an extension of the training and wisdom we receive from our parents.  You cannot know who you are if you cannot call the names of your Ancestors going back seven generations. Remembering names is more than reciting a genealogy, it is preserving the history of a family lineage and the memory of those good deeds that allowed to the family to survive and create a home for the continued cycle of reincarnation.

Before a shrine to the Ancestors can be assembled, several preliminary steps need to occur. First the room should be clean and neat. After the altar is built it should stay as clean as possible.  Dirt and disorder can attract unwanted spiritual forces. This may seem simplistic, but in my experience it is a very important consideration. Our external environment reflects our internal state of being and either supports resistance to change or growth. The idea that if you are confused about anything, remove the clutter and disorder from your home and clarity will surface from the newly transformed physical environment. The boundaries which divide life from death are at best shadowed and vague. Who shall say where the one ends and where the other begins. 

The Yoruba afterlife consists of Reincarnation. However, Africans explain that you reincarnate from your Ancestors and into your descendants. The truth is that you can only reincarnate thru your clan or extended-family descendants. It doesn’t have to be your direct great grandchild. It just has to have enough of your DNA code for you to transfer your spirit into it. In theory, you can transfer to anyone who shares your ethnic group DNA code. However, most genetic DNA theories are racist manipulation of science. DNA is not just a physical code but like a keyhole lows you to open doors in the next reincarnation.This is why many Yoruba names point to the reincarnation of people, but always thru the extended-family. Names like Babatunde – father has returned reflect the Yoruba notion that reincarnation is a family affair.


This is why Ancestral veneration is important in Yoruba. You are not just talking to dead people; you are remembering and learning from your past. If you do not learn from your past, in this life and in former ones you will repeat mistakes. That is the purpose of Ancestral veneration – Egungun) in Ifa. The Odu Ifa tells us that we will all reincarnate until every single human has reached enlightenment. We are a communal species.


When you don’t understand this truth about reincarnation, you will not take efforts to improve the conditions of your clan or ethnic group because you think you will escape it in death’s heaven or join another ethnic group in reincarnation. Then when you return to Earth in the same oppressed ethnic group, you complain even though in your former life you did not fight to liberate your ethnic group. 
This is why their clans establish strong dynasties and they accumulate wealth not just for them, but for the next three generations after them. They know they are coming back and they want to be wealthy while they sell you the lie that you can die and go to heaven to escape this cycle. A true devotee of the Egungun plans for the next 16 generations of prosperity.

It Is Only After Separation With The Flesh Can Man/Woman The Creation Of God, See God Face To Face. It Is Forbidden To Unmask Any Egungun Masquerade. The Face Of The Spirit Is for the Spirit To See, Not The Human Eyes…

Egungun also we all know is the deity of the departed Ancestors. The belief of Yoruba people and Ifa is that even departed ancestors are still part and parcel to the larger family. Below are ten facts you should know about Egungun. They are present in the family and they guide the living member of the family. – Egungun Maternal and Paternal are fed so that will continue to guarantee protection, safety, prosperity, good health and all ire for the living.


Egugun should be fed at least twice in a year – Egungun comes out in the form of Masquerades which are called “Ara-Orun-Kinkin” that is, “The inhabitants of heaven”. – Egungun symbols are: Decorated switches and whips, a hand woven coarse cloth used as Egungun, socks and foot wear. This cloth is known as “Aso Iyamoje”.

Egungun taboos: Palm kernel oil. Women are declined to enter Egungun’s shrine. Obatala devotee must not carry Egungun Masquarade. Egungun face must not been seen or disclosed to anyone. Egun Masquerade must not enter a blacksmith  – Egungun is fed in three forms; while kneeling, sitting or bending.- If the Egungun to be fed is a specific Ancestor all the feeding materials will be taken to the tomb site of the Ancestor and all the necessary ritual performed there.


There are various types of Egungun  among  are; Egungun Eleru, Egungun Olopon (Masqurade with big load on thier head), Egungun Janduku (switch carrying Masquarade), Egungun Alate also known as Tombolo etc. other categories of Masquarades are Gelede and Aabe. The hunters Egungun are known as “Egungun ode”.
Egungun feeding materials are: 
Obi-kolanuts, Orogbo-bitter kola, Atare-alligator pepper, Water, Wine, Palm Oil, Smoked rat, Smoked fish, Rooster, Goat,Ram, and Edible food offerings etc .

Worshipers of Egungun: Alapinni  =  The head chief priest of Egungun – Alagba =   The head of the Oje – Alaran =  Third in command  – Eesorun =  Mostly Women, they are fourth, most important title , and revered position in the cult of Egungun – Oje =  The name given to all Egungun worshipers…

Reference Sources:  Ogunsina Olayinka Adewuyi = Wikipedia = Awo Falokun = Les plus Belle Egungun Benin =

ZANGBETO = Enforcement & Order…

 Zangbeto Masquerade Have Supernatural Powers

Zangbeto are the traditional Vodun guardians of the night in the Yoruba religion of Benin and Togo which are known as the “Night- Watchmen”. As a nominal, it represents a group of men who are involved in policing the community and who also double as members of Zangbeto as a cultural masquerade group during public performances. Zangbeto is also used to convey the notion of a socio-cultural phenomenon made up of a series of beliefs and practices. As an institution, it is backed by an oral history that accentuates its origin as an Egun concept, not an alien or imported one. Sources consulted on the origin and history of Zangbeto asserts that it has existed before we were born and was handed down to us by our forefathers .

In centuries past, The Zangbeto masquerade provided security for the community and ensured discipline among the Egun society (the people of Badagry), and although it is no longer relied on to play these roles, it is still a cherished cultural icon in Badagry, particularly in Ajido-Zangbeto festival is celebrated every three or four years, during which the Zangbeto appease the gods, pray for the immediate community and generally offer good wishes for all households, after which the people expect to reap a plentiful harvest, farmers and fishermen alike. The Zangbeto masquerade is clothed in Asho-Gbeto, made from locally sourced palm fronds and is dedicated to breathtaking showmanship, dazzling its audiences with spirited and ‘magical’ displays. During a Zangbeto performance, you are likely to see fire burn in dry sand or white cloth sprout from underground!. Watching the Zangbeto wade through the water, spinning and shuffling is a rare thrill in itself. Zangbeto never walk alone and are always accompanied by minders know as Kregbeto, whose role it is to guide the masquerade’s every step.

10858430_738241416265541_91088056315402176_n

Zangbeto is believed to have supernatural powers, and is communal, rather than the initiative of private individuals or a self-defined group. Its origins lie in the pre-colonial history of the Egun people of Badagry and the coastal region of PortoNovo in neighbouring Benin.

*** One of the responses given by the head of the group in Yeketome, Badagry, is that Zangbeto dates back several centuries to when an Egun man was said to have been pursued by his enemies and needed to flee from his hometown unnoticed in the night. Using supernatural powers, he disguised himself by covering his body with dried leaves and raffia and by making scary sounds with the horn of an animal. Thus he was eventually able to leave the town unharmed and undetected by his enemies. He later founded a settlement, which he named Hugbonu (Porto Novo, Benin) and subsequently had the men with him dress in a similar manner and keep watch over the new settlement by night to ensure that his enemies did not attack him in his new home. Since then, Zangbeto has been used to keep watch over settlements and towns of the Egun community.***

As regards traditional precolonial ‘night watch’ institutions, the Oro and Egun cults of the Yoruba are the closest masquerade groups to Zangbeto. Earlier studies of both institutions have shown that in precolonial times, in addition to other cultural and religious functions, they were also security outfits mandated to guard the community against foreign or enemy invasion. They are also both regarded in their respective communities as personified representations of ancestral spirits, and their presence is an assurance of the ever-protective and supportive help of the ancestors for their descendants. The Ancestral spirits have collective functions that cut across lineage and family loyalty. They collectively protect the community against evil spirits, epidemics, famine, witchcraft and evildoers, ensuring the well-being, prosperity, and productivity of the whole community generally.

Form and Content of Zangbeto In contemporary Badagry, including the Egun villages surrounding the coastal town, the Zangbeto society is headed by the Zanga, a highly respected elderly man who is well tested and reliable. The Zanga occupies a position of responsibility in dealing with sensitive issues affecting individuals, families and the larger community. Zanga is not just the head of the Zangbeto group, but is also a representative of the people. The Zanga is in effect a traditional chief who functions within the Zangbeto group and in the larger community.

Traditionally, the Zangbeto were the policemen of Benin and were the main guardians of law in the country before the official law establishment. They are said to form a secret society which can only be strictly attended by Zangbeto, and when in a trance are said to have magical abilities such as swallowing splinters of glass without coming to any harm and scaring away even witches.

Zangbeto as spirit and messenger; Zangbeto as peacemaker, moral spokesperson and custodian of Egun culture; Zangbeto as an indivisible whole; Zangbeto as a non-religious group; and Zanga as the honorable one. It is important to note that Zangbeto songs are contributed at different times by members of the group. As with most songs in African oral literature, no single person can claim sole authorship: songs are considered as creations of the group. Moreover, these songs do not possess a singular theme, but themes that underline the circumstances of the creation of such songs and their performance.

The appearance of Zangbeto masquerades during cultural festivals or public performances is usually announced by short but pungent praise. This is a kind of formulaic verse that is not so flexible, in the sense that the words and phrases used retain their structure and content in most performances. The chanter, usually a woman, stays at a distance neither too close nor too far from the masquerade.

The opening chant is translated thus: He wishes to be heard, But the horn would not let him, The horn that makes sounds, the horn that breathes. This introduces Zangbeto as a being with a ‘horn’ and a desire. The horn, located at the tip of the mask and is used to symbolise the position of Zangbeto as a leading group in the community. The masquerade is only a constitutive part of a whole. Zangbeto is a group, an institution, and even a way of life that is represented in physical form by the mask. ‘He’ is then used to represent the form under this mask.

*** Zangbeto may be chiefly about social order within traditional Egun society, using oral forms of art, rituals and cultural practices, some of which have been adapted to the security needs of the town’s inhabitants in the face of the state security agencies’ inability to satisfy the demands of law enforcement and order.