*** History of Opele -Irere …
An Opele (Irere) is a divination chain used in traditional West-African Religions, notably in Ifá. A Babalawo = Bokono (Diviner) uses the Opele in order to communicate with the spirits who are able to identify the causes and solutions to personal and collective problems and restore harmony with the spirits.
The Opele (Irere) consists of eight half-nuts of the Opele tree with convex/concave sides linked at regular intervals by short strands of chain at the ends of which the priest may attach small beads, coins, and cowries. More recent Opele (Irere) have substituted small, oval brass plates for the half-nuts. The Diviner holds the Chain at the center and then swings the Chain gently, lying it on the cloth or mat on which he is seated. In a single motion he creates a pattern, which refers to an Odu of Ifa, the verses of which he then chants. The pattern, consisting of the concave and convex sides of the brass plates or nuts, is equivalent to the pattern of parallel marks made by the Ifa priest in the Iyerosun dust on an opon ifa when using Ikin Ifa (Sixteen Sacred Nuts).
The Divining Chain is said to “talk more” than the Palm Nuts, but it is regarded as in inferior instrument, less reliable than Palm Nuts for deciding important questions. It is also spoken of as Ifa’s servant. Nevertheless it is more commonly used in Divination, and a number of Diviners employ only the Chain, because they dislike using the Palm Nuts. The reason for this is that the Divining Chain arrives at the same interpretation through the same set of figures and verses more rapidly, and answers more questions than are usually asked when the slower method with Palm Nuts is employed.
The Divining Chains are made by the Diviners for themselves and for their students. The Divining Chain, which is about one foot to two feet long, usually consist of eight halves of Seed shells or Pods joined together by sections of Chain. The middle section of the Chain, by which it is held, is somewhat shorter. The Seed sections are of equal length, so that when the Chain is held in the middle, the four Shells on the right and the four on the left hang down side by side.
The Divining Chain is thrown with the Right Hand only, which is said to be used consistently in Ifa Divination, even by left-handed Diviners. It is tossed away from the Diviner in such a way that the two open ends fall nearest to the Diviner and the two sides fall parallel. Each half Seed shell can fall with either the Concave inner surface (I) or the Convex outer surface (O) facing up. It is essential that the two surfaces of the Shells, or of other materials used in place of them, can be distinguished.
Various objects – including beads, cowries, shells, coins, buttons, rings, small bells, and bits of metal – are attached to the bottom of the pods at either end of the Chain. Their purpose is to enable the Diviner to distinguish the Right half (odd) and the Left half (even) of the Chain, so that the same half is always cast on the same side, and so that the figure will not be misread. Often an odd number of cowries (one or three) marks the Right half and an even number (two or four) mark the Left.
The Type of Divination Chain most highly prized consist of circular brass links set (Swivels) at right angles to each other, permitting the Seeds to fall freely in either the concave or the convex position. With a good Divination Chain the probability of each of the figures appearing is equal (1 in 256). The fall of the Seeds is not left to chance but is controlled by Ifa, the Deity of Divination, and any interference with the free fall of the Seeds, by the instrument or by the Diviner, garbles the message which Ifa wishes the client to receive.
The Shells of a dark-colored Seed (Egbere), said to come from a large tree (Igi-Epu), is most commonly used and most highly regarded. These Seeds resemble almond shells in their general shape and markings but are darker, smaller, and much harder. They are sold in the markets, but they have become increasingly rare and expensive since the early trade in ivory. When Split open, they show a smooth, slight convex, outer surface. A small hole is burned through each end of a half of a Seed Shell with a hot iron, so that the section Chain may be attached.
Most common is the Seed pod known as “Opele – Irere” from which the Divining Chain takes its name. It comes from the Opele tree, this pod is referred to as Ewe’s foot (Ese Agutan) these are the only Seeds found in elephant dung, and that they are obtained either from hunters or directly from the tree. This Seed pod has a distinctive pear shape and naturally split open at the base, with the two halves splaying out from the top where they are joined until broken apart.
According to Ife Diviners, when Ogunda Meji died at the town of Oko, a tree called Opele Oga Oko sprang up on his grave, and from it fell a fruit that split open, revealing the figure Ogbe Meji written inside. As Orunmila told us in Ejiogbe: The basis for understanding the beginning and end of all things. Through Ifa is revealed the Great Mysteries of life. Only Ifa explains the reasons for the existence of life, living, death, sickness, success, failure, poverty, wealth, life before birth and life after death.
Opele is the primordial computer of Yoruba origin, which handle the spiritual data and concerns generated from the in-depth subconscious mind of the client (Cosmic Energy). The activation code is invocation of divine forces from the operator (Diviner) known as process through the unmeasured pool of cosmic consciousness. The output is another form of binary as the language of the holy spirit of Orunmila-Ajana called “Odu”. Multibillion sequence of interpretations and probabilities is possible with Opele depending on the efficiencies of Orunmila during the diagnosis. Opele is a super oracle in nature due to its multipurpose functions as divination and physical therapy instruments. Opele has two arms, tied at regular equal intervals is the four half nuts of the pods of Opele tree, each arm can be distinguished with the number tied to the edge of the arm.
The sacred Odu Ifa “Ologbon Meji” pointed to Opele as the apprentice of Orunmila who was impoverished for been talkative, this is evident when Opele is handled correctly, it naked the truth of past, present and future of the client, even those needed not to know. Opele’s functions is manual not automatic, it can process data through any form of spiritual energy. Ifa – Orisha – Ancestors or Spirit guide, depending on the instructions and data input.
How Did Opele Become A Divination Tool? (Eji Ogbe)
Today, many people use Opele – Irere without knowing how or why it is used as a divination tool. The Ancient name of Opele when he was still a human being was Irere. Orunmila bought Irere at Ejigbomekun market to serve as a gardener, his main duty is to clear the bushes around and remove refuse from Ifa divination mat, but Irere was a very gifted Diviner. Orunmila now because of Irere knowledge grant him favor to divine for clients that come when Orunmila is not at home but Irere abuse this privileged. He begins to claim that he is more knowledgeable than Orunmila in divination. It happens one day that Orunmila was on his itinerant divination tour, so king Olofin send for Irere to make divination for him since Orunmila his master is not around Irere begins to boost as usual, because of his knowledge. He did not pay homage to the king and chiefs, they were angry because of Irere rudeness. Orunmila quickly pay homage to the king and the chiefs and apologies on behalf of Irere.
When Orunmila got to home he called Irere, he tries to rebuke him, but Irere was too proud and not remorseful. Orunmila get angry and he use Iroke Ifa (divination tapper) to knock Irere on head and Irere break into eight pieces of equal sizes. Instead of Orunmila to throw it away Orunmila consider is usefulness he then uses thread and beads to make the eight pieces to Ifa divination Chain. Different types of Opele = Irere that emerge after like Opele Egbere, Opele Igba, Opele Eso, the one that is controversial is Agbigba because of it efficiency it takes blood on itself unlike other Opele, it is been divine with Ashe. Ikin and Opele can be propitiate with food, but Ikin are fed first and separately from Opele. “Slave do not eat along with their master”
***To conduct Oro Opele: Orogbo (bitter kola) – Obi Abata(kola nuts) – Ataare (alligator pepper) – Emu ( palm wine) – Oti (one bottle of Gin) – Eku Eda (eda rat) – Eja Gbigbe (dry cat fish) – Ogomo (palm frond)
==You will Open all the face of the Opele up, to depicts Odu Ifa Ejiogbe. All the ingredient will be cut into pieces and be place on each of the eight lobes of Opele divination chains that is open on ground. The Awo will ask the person to whom the Oro Opele is about to be conduct for to be kneeling position whit his hands behind his back. While he will be using his mouth to pick the items on each of the eight lobes of Opele divination chains after the other. After he eat the materials if he said he did not know the odu. The Awo will then chants a verse in Odu Ifa Ejiogbe. Similar process of arrangement of items on it and eating of and chanting of Odu Ifa Oyeku meji will then be follow. The same process will be followed till the Oju Odu sixteen principal Odu Ifa have been follow. Starting from Ejiogbe to Ofun Meji also known as Odu Ifa Orangun meji.
Among Dahomey’s Fon the chain is called Agummaga but is used in the same way as Opele. Guessers see the fall of seeds not as a matter of chance, but as by an act controlled by Ifa, the divinity of divination. Any interference with the free fall of the current by the divine garb the message Ifa wants the customer to receive hence the ritual of throwing the chain is governed by very precise rules. That is, Babalawo uses Opele to discern the nature of the client’s problem, then determine the appropriate sacrifice, medications, and observance. Together, these elements make up the distinct method by which Babalawos diagnose and treat customers.
Reference Sources: Wikipedia = William Bascom = King Bolarinwa Olayemi = Google Search/Photo = Babalawo Obanifa = Adulawo TV =